CD-i Technical Documentation / PIM Technical Notes

On this page, you will find technical notes released by Philips Interactive Media on a variety of subjects concerning CD-i. Most of them are in Portable Document Format, you need Adobe Acrobat Reader to view or print them.



CATALOG OF CD-I TECHNICAL NOTES
TN #022 - Using RGB555 Images
TN #034 - DYUV Panning Algorithms
TN #039 - NTSC Coloring Problems
TN #041 - CD-I Application Library/Trap Handler Usage
TN #042 - Reduction of Flicker in Interlaced Pictures
TN #044 - Using Functions With Variable-Length Argument Lists in OS-9
TN #046 - Restrictions on the Use of Load CLUT Color Instructions
TN #048 - Preparing CD-I Titles for the International Marketplace
TN #047 - Real-Time Code Loading
TN #049 - Performance Considerations in CD-RTOS
TN #051 - EASI: Editing and Animation Sound Interface
TN #052 - Notes on QHYB: Base Case QHY
TN #054 - Error Strategy for CD-I Final Product Deliverable
TN #056 - CARLIE: Compressed AIM Run-Length Image Encoding
TN #058 - Notes from Charlie Golvin: SCCS Usage, Portation to SPARC, etc.
TN #060 - Recommended Disc Building Pathways
TN #061 - Software Sprites in CD-I
TN #062 - Living with Reality: Remaining Bugs in CD-RTOS 1.1
TN #063 - Display Synchronization in CD-I
TN #064 - Using the GNU Cross Compiler
TN #065 - High Resolution Graphics Tools
TN #066 - Accessing Audio Files on a CD-I Disc
TN #067.2 - Tape Submission of Disc Images (revised)
TN #068 - The CD-I Player and NVRUI
TN #069 - Technical Status of the Philips 910 CD-I Player
TN #070.1 - Inhibiting the Replication of Global Data
TN #057.1 - Initializing a Player's Configurable Parameters (revised)
TN #071.1 - Resource Compiler/Manager for CD-I Applications (revised)
TN #072 - Passing Open Paths Between Processes (revised)
TN #073.2 - Reading the Player Control Keys
TN #074 - Abekas A60 Tape Utility
TN #075 - Recommended Disc Labeling Conventions for PIMA Titles
TN #076 - Differences between the Philips 18x and 605 Development Platforms
TN #077 - Implementing a Compass Cursor in CD-I
TN #078 - A Technique for Menu Highlighting
TN #079 - Monitoring Audio Play from Memory
TN #080 - Using Sub-Routine Modules
TN #081 - Using SrcDbg to Debug CD-I Software
TN #082 - A Graphical Method for Hotspot Generation
TN #083 - A Compression Algorithm for Monochrome Images
TN #084 - ArtSpace Animation Conversion Pathway
TN #085.1 - Ensuring Title Compatibility Across Players
TN #086 - Improved DYUV Encoding Methods
TN #087 - Memory Allocation in CD-RTOS
TN #088 - Status of the Digital Video System
TN #089 - A New Method for Video Scan Synchronization in CD-i
TN #090 - Improved Seek Times with I$Seek
TN #091 - A Beginner's Guide to Balboa Edition 1
TN #092 - Audio Considerations in CD-I
TN #093 - Image Formats for Compatibility
TN #094 - Various Time Bases in CD-I
TN #095 - Media Mogul Script-to-Disc
TN #096 - Emulator and Emulation
TN #097 - The Full Motion System for CD-I
TN #098 - Introduction to Programming the FMV System
TN #099 - Balboa Video Manager Insights 1
TN #100 - Balboa Video Manager Insights 2
TN #101 - Extension Memory in CD-i
TN #102 - EOS Problem in Current DV Cartridge
TN #103 - Flying Mattes with CD-i Digital Video
TN #104 - Aspect Ratios in CD-i
TN #105 - Seamless Branching with CD-i Digital Video


  • CATALOG OF CD-I TECHNICAL NOTES

  • March 22, 1994
    Download techindex.pdf (PDF - 547 KB)
    (does not contain TN #103 onwards)

  • TN #022 - Using RGB555 Images

  • Anderson, Eric - AIM
    A technical note to call attention to special handling requirements for RGB555 images. Use of the UCM function dm_write() is discussed along with IFF storage format considerations, and the use of RGB images in real-time files.
    No revisions.
    Download technote022.pdf (PDF - 136 KB)

  • TN #034 - DYUV Panning Algorithms

  • Townsend, Dave - Capitol Disc
    Algorithms for panning a large DYUV draw map.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #039 - NTSC Coloring Problems

  • Wood, Rodney E. - AIM
    Most CD-I applications designers make some assumptions about the video output from the consumer CD-I player. Some assume that the player is connected to an RGB monitor and others assume that the connections is to a television. Small pixel patterns are displayed quite differently on an RGB monitor and on an NTSC television. This document describes some caveats regarding the use of the bit patterns in CD-I.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #041 - CD-I Application Library/Trap Handler Usage

  • Anderson, Eric - AIM
    This technical note describes the use of trap handlers found in CD-RTOS ROM. Using trap handlers allows you to save application memory. Additional memory can be saved by removing stack checking code.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #042 - Reduction of Flicker in Interlaced Pictures

  • Richards, Norman - PRL
    TECHNICAL Contrary to general belief, the base case CD-I system, the JNMS player, is capable of displaying interlaced pictures in a trivial manner and in a way entirely consistent with the Green Book standard.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #044 - Using Functions With Variable-Length Argument Lists in OS-9

  • Rader, Kirk - AIM
    OS-9 does not contain standard mechanisms for writing C code using functions that take variable-length argument lists. With special care, however, it is possible to use conventional techniques when writing C code under OS-9.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #046 - Restrictions on the Use of Load CLUT Color Instructions

  • Anderson, Eric - AIM
    This technical note describes a hardware restriction with the new VSR chip found in all CD-RTOS vl.0 players and CD-I development platforms. This restriction is not described in the current Green Book Specification (14 November 1988), but in all likelihood will be included in the next edition.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #048 - Preparing CD-I Titles for the International Marketplace

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA
    Different levels of preparation may be adopted by CD-I developers to assure that CD-I titles can be used on various television systems in the international marketplace. This note makes some recommendations to assist CD-I developers in preparing their titles for international distribution.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #047 - Real-Time Code Loading

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note describes a method for loading an executable program from a real time record and executing that program. This technique may be used by titles with memory considerations provided the title engineer is able to divide the title into separately compiled programs. This technique does not provide the ability to load, execute, and return from a code fragment, such as a function or subroutine.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #049 - Performance Considerations in CD-RTOS

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA
    Although recent changes in the 1.0 Philips JNMS player and in CD-RTOS have resulted in better responsiveness, title designers and software engineers can take additional steps to assure satisfactory performance from a CD-I disc.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #051 - EASI: Editing and Animation Sound Interface

  • Mills, Rusty - PIMA
    EASI is a movieola-style CD-I system that allows you to edit sound to exact frames. By dispensing with the need to use real-time files, EASI dramatically reduces the time required to edit.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #052 - Notes on QHYB: Base Case QHY

  • Richards, Norman - PRL

    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #054 - Error Strategy for CD-I Final Product Deliverable

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA .
    An earlier AIM technical note, #43.1, on recommended error tolerance strategy has been widely ignored by titles in production. The current note describes the preferred and minimum requirements for error tolerance for alpha tape deliverables to AIM. Non-compliance with at least the minimum strategy is reason for rejection of the alpha tape.
    Supersedes and replaces AIM TN#43.1 by Robert Patton.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #056 - CARLIE: Compressed AIM Run-Length Image Encoding

  • Pferdner, Richard - Adaptive Design
    CARLIE is a technique for compressing run-length encoded images. The number of bytes required for a run-length encoded image is reduced by compressing the image in the vertical direction. CARLIE works best with cartoon-like images whose original size is under 20K.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #058 - Notes from Charlie Golvin: SCCS Usage, Portation to SPARC, etc.

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note is an informal compendium of issues and techniques of interest to CD-I developers. In includes discussion of non real-time sectors in real-time files, the use of error detection code in Form 2 sectors, the use of AIM "include" files, the portation of code to the SUN SPARC environment, the use of SCCS, error detection in PCLs, and two useful programs.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #060 - Recommended Disc Building Pathways

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    In this technical note, disc building pathways that do not employ buildcd are recommended to AIM title engineers. These pathways will shorten the turnaround time required for disc building.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #061 - Software Sprites in CD-I

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA
    Architecturally, CD-i is not very similar to a "game machine." Characteristics, such as sprites and collision detection, are not supported by the hardware. Yet CD-i's powerful graphics capabilities, relatively powerful CPU, two-plane video display architecture, built-in run-length logic, and superior audio circuitry--all under the control of a real-time operation system--can provide substantial functionality in the domain of action games, albeit at a different level of sophistication.
    No revisions.
    Download technote061.pdf (PDF - 651 KB)

  • TN #062 - Living with Reality: Remaining Bugs in CD-RTOS 1.1

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA
    In the state currently reached by CD-i players, many of the older problems have been resolved and a very workable situation has been achieved. However, a number of issues remain: the actual available implementation may deviate from Green Book definitions or the Green Book definitions are ambiguous. The time has come for title productions to face these items and plan strategies to work around them, rather than to rely on fixes in a future version of the player or its software. This note describes some of the points that have to be taken into account and suggests workarounds whenever possible. The notion of a workaround is such that the solution that is suggested is always upward compatible; that is, discs that utilize these workarounds will work well on future players, even after the player bugs have been fixed.
    No revisions. Formerly PIMA TN#62.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #063 - Display Synchronization in CD-I

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA
    CD-i has a fairly elaborate display architecture and correspondingly complex system software support. The different functions are explained in this technical note, with the emphasis on setting up the display system in such a way that glitches can be avoided. This is probably not an issue for "simple titles," where the functionality as provided by UCM is already adequate. However, titles that rely on more complex imagery composited from both video planes need to pay attention to the problems raised in this note. Two solutions are described, one that relies on careful planning of transitions, while the other describes a more fundamental solution by properly synchronizing the transition with the display timing.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #064 - Using the GNU Cross Compiler

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    Capitol Disc recently merged two implementations of GNU to produce a cross compiler that runs under the SunOS and produces OS-9 assembly code. The GUN cross compiler employs the Microware assembler (o68) and linker l68) to produce code executable on the CD-i player.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #065 - High Resolution Graphics Tools

  • Vitz, Frank
    The CD-i community needs techniques for capturing, converting, and displaying still images of the highest possible quality for inclusion in a variety of CD-i applications. The tools discussed here were developed to provide a production pathway to QHYB images; however, they may also be used wherever producers need to produce high resolution images.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #066 - Accessing Audio Files on a CD-I Disc

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA
    CD-i has inherited some addressing conventions from CD audio which are discussed in this note. A two-second off set exists between the "Absolute Time" base and the "Logical Block Numbers" used in accessing files.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #067.2 - Tape Submission of Disc Images (revised)

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This document is intended to completely describe the format of a tape containing a CD-i disc image, whether the disc image is submitted for mastering by a disc replication facility or submitted to PIMA to produce a limited number of one-off (WORM) discs. IN addition, the process of making such a tape on the Macintosh using the standard PIMA-recommended tape writing utilities and on the Sun using a public domain tape-writing utility is described.
    Revised 8/25/92. Supersedes PIMA TN#67.1 (PIMA internal distribution only) and PIMA TN#67.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #068 - The CD-I Player and NVRUI

  • Lediaev, Lucy - PIMA
    This document is a summary of the purpose and functions of the user interface to the CD-i player's non-volatile RAM. The information in this note was drawn from the AIM design document, "User Interface Design Criteria and Recommendations for NV-RAM," by Blake, Kaufman, van Luijt, and van Allen, and from a talk given to the AIM Product Test organization by Tyler Blake. The goal of this summary is to provide information on NVRUI to CD-i producers, designers, product testers, and other non-engineering personnel.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #069 - Technical Status of the Philips 910 CD-I Player

  • van Luijt, Alty - PIMA
    In the current state of CD-i players, many of the older problems have been resolved, and a very workable situation has been achieved. However, a number of issues remain in which the actual available implementations deviate from Green Book definitions, where Green Book definitions are somewhat ambiguous, or where timing aspects play a role. This note describes some of the issues that need to be taken into account and suggests workarounds whenever possible. The notion of a workaround implies that the suggested solution is always compatible. That is, discs that utilize these workarounds will work well on future players, even after the player bugs have been fixed or timing constraints have been relaxed.
    No revisions.
    Download technote069.pdf (PDF - 1224 KB)

  • TN #070.1 - Inhibiting the Replication of Global Data

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note describes a method of inhibiting the double memory cost that applications pay for initialized data, initialized data references, and initialized code references.
    Revised 8/20/92. Supersedes PIMA TN#70.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #057.1 - Initializing a Player's Configurable Parameters (revised)

  • van Allen, Philip; revised by Charles Golvin - PIMA
    The "CD-I Full Functional Specification" does not guarantee that the CD-i player will "boot" with a specific configuration. Therefore, the application must initialize the player's configurable parameters or risk unexpected behavior.
    Revised and supersedes TN# 57.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #071.1 - Resource Compiler/Manager for CD-I Applications (revised)

  • Ellinwood, Ken - PIMA
    This technical note describes a method for loading and accessing pre-initialized data at run-time. This method is intended to aid in the development of data-driven CD-i applications. This technical note supersedes the note for the original version (1.0) Dated December 2, 1991, and pertains to version 1.1 of the software.
    Supersedes PIMA TN#71.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #072 - Passing Open Paths Between Processes (revised)

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    CD-i applications may employ more than one process. It may be required that these processes share a path to an open device. This note describes the technique for passing open paths between processes, and for determining the type of CD-i device associated with a path number.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #073.2 - Reading the Player Control Keys

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    A proposed addendum to the Green Book describes the implementation of the Player Control Keys (PCKs). This note gives concrete examples of how to actually implement these keys on both the Philips 910 player and, for debugging purposes, on the Philips 18x player. This note has been revised to describe the role of the ss_enable function in the use of the PCKs.
    Supersedes PIMA TN#73.1 and 73.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #074 - Abekas A60 Tape Utility

  • Berson, Lisa - PIMA
    This utility allows you to extract frames from an Abekas A60 back-up tape in CD-I IFF RGB888 file format. It also allows you to create an Abekas A60 back-up tape from CD-I IFF RGB888 files. This utility runs on a Sun3 or Sun4 machine.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #075 - Recommended Disc Labeling Conventions for PIMA Titles

  • Topel, Drew - PIMA
    This note provides disc labeling conventions that take into account the features offered by various CD-i player manufacturers. For instance, some manufacturers will make volume and album identifiers accessible to the user. Thus, the information placed in these fields needs to be accurate and consistent with usage on other titles.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #076 - Differences between the Philips 18x and 605 Development Platforms

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This note summarizes the major differences between the Philips 18x and 605 development platforms. This note is based on revision 1.1 of the 605 ROM.
    No revisions.
    Download technote076.pdf (PDF - 999 KB)

  • TN #077 - Implementing a Compass Cursor in CD-I

  • Hunt, Kevin and Yoon, Douglas - PIMA
    This note lays out a method for implementing a compass cursor (frequently used in traditional arcade games) in CD-i. The method described here relies heavily on the Balboa System Cursor/Hotspot Manager. Thus, familiarity with the Balboa System is required for successful implementation of the compass cursor described here.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #078 - A Technique for Menu Highlighting

  • Senftner, Blake - PIMA
    This note reviews a simple method for menu highlighting that is also very flexible. It involves use of a DYUV background image with a series of run-length 7 (RL7) images. It can be used to highlight standard menu hotspots and can be adapted for use with slide bars and other graphical controls.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #079 - Monitoring Audio Play from Memory

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note summarizes the methods available for monitoring audio play from memory. In particular, this note describes differences between the Green Book description and current implementation for some of these methods.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #080 - Using Sub-Routine Modules

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note describes the use of OS-9 subroutine modules in order to dynamically load executable code on demand.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #081 - Using SrcDbg to Debug CD-I Software

  • Ellinwood, Ken - PIMA
    Microware's source level debugger, SrcDbg, is a very useful tool for debugging CD-I software. This document offers many hints and tricks that make the debugger easier to use. This document is not intended as a tutorial on SrcDbg commands or how to use debuggers.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #082 - A Graphical Method for Hotspot Generation

  • Trott, Graham - BEPL
    This note describes a graphical method for defining hotspots and an MPW script for generating resource compiler source or any other source that acts as input to the CD-I build. This method uses the depict tool, part of Palomar Software's PICT Detective.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #083 - A Compression Algorithm for Monochrome Images

  • Trott, Graham - BEPL
    A compression algorithm was developed during solution of the problem of putting up a graphical error screen which needed to be kept in memory at all times. The compression method discussed herein results in a considerable reduction of the image storage requirements for these error screens.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #084 - ArtSpace Animation Conversion Pathway

  • Senftner, Blake - PIMA
    This note describes the use of the program anim_converter. This is a UNIX-based program that takes a series of TGA or RGB888 images and converts them to a set of RL7 images suitable for compiling as an animation to be used as part of a CD-I title.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #085.1 - Ensuring Title Compatibility Across Players

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note describes potential issues to which a title developer must attend in order to assure compatibility with all CD-I players. In particular, some issues exposed by the introduction of the Philips 220 player are discussed.
    Supersedes TN#85.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #086 - Improved DYUV Encoding Methods

  • Burley, Brent - PIMA
    This note describes a DYUV encoding method which examines an entire scan line as opposed to the pixel-by-pixel method. This method can reduce error in the converted image and can meet the additional constraints required for DYUV "blitting." Two new tools, rgbdyuv and dyuvfit, have been developed to take advantage of this method.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #087 - Memory Allocation in CD-RTOS

  • Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note describes how memory is allocated in CD-RTOS. It also provides guidelines for how to best control memory allocations and, therefore, prevent fragmentation.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #088 - Status of the Digital Video System

  • Charles Golvin - PIMA
    This technical note describes reported problems with the initial CD-i Digital Video system. These reports consist of both confirmed and potential problems.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #089 - A New Method for Video Scan Synchronization in CD-i

  • Jon Piesing - PRL
    This technical note describes three methods of video scan synchronization in CD-i, two that are described in the Green Book and one recently discovered by the author. This is of particular significance to highly interactive action games, since the two Green Book methods fall far short of what is available on other platforms.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #090 - Improved Seek Times with I$Seek

  • Luijks, Cor - IMS; and Golvin, Charles - PIMA
    This technical note describes the use of the function I$Seek to improve seek times.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #091 - A Beginner's Guide to Balboa Edition 1

  • Rolff, Jan - IMS; Maxfield, Andy - IMS; and Piesing, Jon - PRL
    This document provides a simple overview of Balboa and includes a simple slide-show application.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#-001R to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #092 - Audio Considerations in CD-I

  • van Luijt, Alty - IMS
    In CD-i there are two mechanisms for audio playback, direct and through sound maps. Each of them, and especially the combination, have some caveats. This note describes what tradeoffs play a role in this area.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#002 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #093 - Image Formats for Compatibility

  • van Luijt, Alty - IMS
    This application note describes the various CD-I screen considerations in 525, 625 line, and wide screen (16:9) television formats. It emphasizes what a producer can do when 625 line. production equipment is used. Refer to TECHNICAL NOTE 009 by the same author for a USA perspective.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#003 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #094 - Various Time Bases in CD-I

  • van Luijt, Alty - IMS
    The CD-i player has three different time bases; the disc rate, the video filed rate, and the timer or system tick. This note describes the properties of these time bases and the pitfalls that an application has to avoid to achieve proper operations across a variety of players.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#004 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #095 - Media Mogul Script-to-Disc

  • van der Meer, Sander - IMS
    The Media Mogul authoring software requires the Script-to-Disc software to create CD-i images to be tested out on an emulator. This note describes two options for Script-to-Disc: running it in-house or at Philips IMS in Eindhoven.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#005 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #096 - Emulator and Emulation

  • van Vroonhoven, Joost - IMS
    Creating a CD-i application involves collecting and encoding of assets and the writing of application software to implement the interactivity. After premastering, the CD-i disc image can be tested on a CD-i player connected to an emulator. This note describes the various aspects of emulation on different hosts.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#006 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #097 - The Full Motion System for CD-I

  • van der Meer, Jan - IMS
    The full motion system is defined to extend CD-i with the capability to play moving natural pictures on full screen with associated audio of compact disc quality. To play full motion sequences from CD-i disc requires compression of the audiovisual information to the CD-I bit rate. The full motion system applies a compression method based on the MPEG standard. This note describes the features of the CD-i full motion system, application of the MPEG standard for full motion and the architecture of a full motion CD-i player. Major parts of this application note have been published in the paper, "The Full Motion System for CD-i" in the November, 1992, issue of IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics."
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#007 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #098 - Introduction to Programming the FMV System

  • Ellinwood, Ken - PIMA
    This paper reveals the basic knowledge required to successfully implement simple FMV features, such as play, pause, slow motion, and scan. The build-time tools, run-time algorithms and data structures required to support these features are covered. Code examples are used to illustrate the techniques described.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#008 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #099 - Balboa Video Manager Insights 1

  • Piesing, Jon - PRL; and Rolff, Jan - IMS
    This document contains an introduction to the Balboa video manager. It concludes with an example of a DYUV movie.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#009 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #100 - Balboa Video Manager Insights 2

  • Piesing, Jon - PRL; and Rolff, Jan - IMS
    This document contains an introduction to the Balboa video manager. It concludes with an example of a scrolling CLUT screen.
    No revisions. Formerly IMS TSA#010 to be re-released under this number.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #101 - Extension Memory in CD-i

  • Golvin, Charles - Philips Interactive Media
    This technical note describes how extension memory is provided in CD-i. It also provides guidelines for the specific instance of the one additional megabyte of system memory provided in the Philips Digital Video cartridge.
    No revisions.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #102 - EOS Problem in Current DV Cartridge

  • Maris, Stefan
    Parallel processing of video material on several computers to create MPEG data streams may results in the creation of extraneous end of sequence (EOS) codes. Occasionally, the DV cartridge loses count of its frames after encountering an EOS code, which may result in read errors or system crashes. This note recommends removal of unnecessary EOS codes from the MPEG stream. and provides source code for the program "patcheos," which performs this removal operation.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #103 - Flying Mattes with CD-i Digital Video

  • Jean-Pierre Abello (9 pages)
    One of the problems with the Digital VIdeo (DV) plane in CD-i is that it cannot be displayed in front of the base-case planes and, therefore, cannot be used in conjunction with transparency to display portions of a DV screen in the foreground of base-case images. However, an animated DV object or portion of the DV plane can be tracked by a base-case "flying matte" that is updated in synchronization with the DV pictures. This allows you to create the illusion of a DV object moving in front of a base-case plane (which may contain DYUV pictures, run-length animations, etc.).
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #104 - Aspect Ratios in CD-i

  • Andrew Duncan (10 pages)
    There is a great deal of misunderstanding about aspect ratios in creating graphics and video for use in CD-i applications. This note attempts to quantify these issues to provider guidelines for preparation of the visual assets used in a CD-i title.
    Not yet available for download

  • TN #105 - Seamless Branching with CD-i Digital Video

  • Jean-Pierre Abello (27 pages)
    This document explains the low-level seamless branching mechanisms that allow a CD-i player with the Digital Video cartridge to play non-linear interactive Digital Video. Seamless branching provides the ability to play MPEG data from different streams or different portions of streams without breaking the delivery and presentation continuity of video or audio. The build-time and run-time requirements of seamless branching are discussed, and the discussion is followed in the appendices by practical methods and examples. The buffering mechanisms necessary to ensure continuous data access from the storage medium are considered part of a different problem domain and are not covered in this paper.
    Not yet available for download

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